ERTRAC Automated Driving Roadmap
This document provides an overview on the current status for Automated Driving technologies with regard to implementation in Europe. The ERTRAC roadmap is based on available documents for automated driving. The overall objective is to identify challenges for implementation of higher levels of automated driving functions. A lot of work has been done on this topic by various stakeholders and multi-stakeholders platforms (e.g. iMobility Forum, EUCAR, CLEPA, ERTICO, EPoSS) and in European research projects. Therefore, it is essential to avoid any duplication of activities and concentrate on the missing items, concerns and topics for future implementation. Automated Driving is seen as one of the key technologies and major technological advancements influencing and shaping our future mobility and quality of life. The main drivers for higher levels of Automated Driving are: • Safety: Reduce accidents caused by human errors. • Efficiency and environmental objectives: Increase transport system efficiency and reduce time in congested traffic. Smoother traffic will help to decrease the energy consumption and emissions of the vehicles. • Comfort: Enable user’s freedom for other activities when automated systems are active. • Social inclusion: Ensure mobility for all, including elderly and impaired users. • Accessibility: Facilitate access to city centres. Automated Driving must therefore be considered as a key aspect for the European Transport policy, able to support several objectives and societal challenges, such as road safety, decarbonisation, smart cities, social inclusiveness, etc. In technological terms, the advancement towards highly Automated Driving is seen as an evolutionary process to ensure that all involved stakeholders can develop and evolve with the adequate pace. This process already started with the development of ABS, ESP and Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) and will progressively apply to more functions and environments. In parallel, driverless automated systems can be deployed to provide transport solutions in restricted areas with dedicated infrastructure or at specific locations e.g. airports. The European community is nevertheless facing important challenges to enable or implement higher levels of Automated Driving in all environments. It is utmost important that these challenges and existing gaps (technology, legislation, regulatory, policy, etc.) are early recognized and appropriate measures are taken. Europe has a very strong industrial basis on automotive technologies and systems. The automotive industry is the largest private investor of R&D in Europe: four out of the TOP5 companies investing most in R&D in Europe are automotive companies. Various studies revealed the outstanding economic impact projected for automated driving for the years to come ranging up to €71bn in 20301 , 2. The estimated global market for automated vehicles is 44 million vehicles by 20303. The economic impact is realised through economic growth, new jobs across the automotive value chain, and wider economic impacts such as increased productivity, reduced time in congestion, reduced number of severe accidents (reduced number of fatalities), efficiency gains in the transport system (i.e. increased capacity and reduced fuel consumption), etc. The whole industrial sector needs to evolve and adapt in a fast pace to stay ahead in global competitiveness while including all stakeholders and addressing societal needs. 1 KPMG, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles – The UK Economic Opportunity 2 Boston Consulting Group (2015) Revolution in the Driver’s Seat: The Road to Autonomous Vehicles 3 Autonomous Vehicles, Navigant Research, Aug/13 2. Scope and Objectives 5 Some challenges are beyond the scope of a research roadmap, but their clearance is key to a future exploitation of the R&D results, and to reach the objective to establish a European lead market and technology leadership. To name just the most obvious one, legislation and regulatory framework must be adapted according to the technological advancement. Further, industrialisation is key for implementation of automated driving and to realise the positive economic impact. In order to avoid another ‘developed in Europe but produced outside’ scenario, a pan-European effort with high visibility and recognition is required. ERTRAC, the European Road Transport Research Advisory Council, acknowledges its important role to ensure a harmonised approach towards implementation of higher levels of Automated Driving functionalities. In 2014, ERTRAC established a task force with stakeholders and experts from its member associations and individual members to define a joint roadmap for Automated Driving. The document is structured in Scope and Objectives, Common Definitions and Deployment Paths, State of the Art including an overview on the current EU and international situation, the Key Challenges and the ERTRAC Roadmap for Automated Driving.