The deployment of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Europe
Road transport is an essential service in society, but the burden of traffic crashes and Pollution is immense. European data show that road accidents in the EU countries cause about 250,000 seriously injured people every year, with 28,000 fatalities in 2012 (Kearns & Kidd, 2013). US data in addition, illustrate that automobile crashes led to 34,080 fatalities in 2012 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 2013), where about 90% of the cases were attributed at least partially to driver error (Smith, 2013).
Therefore, car manufacturers have introduced a range of vehicle systems to assist drivers in their driving task, and subsequently enhance driving safety, comfort and traffic efficiency (Golias et al., 2002). Such systems are broadly known as Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) and can be described as “systems developed to automate/adapt/enhance vehicle systems for safety and better driving” (Himabindu & Yasmeen, 2014). The ADAS, depending on their functions and design, are either primarily addressed to support the driver, and thuscalled driver support systems, e.g. navigation systems, vision enhancement, automated transactions and driver vigilance monitoring, or the vehicle and subsequently referred to as vehicle support systems, e.g. speed control, lane departure collision avoidance, obstacle detection (Golias et al., 2002). Building upon this generic classification more detailed ADAS categorisations can be found in the literature, e.g. (Golias et al., 2002; Shladover, 1995; Vahidi & Eskandarian, 2003).